Course Title: Electrical Theory for Troubleshooters

Delivery Medium: Video Tapes

Course Overview: This comprehensive training program consists of seven lessons that train participants in the principles of AC/DC and solid-state theories. Digital electronic theory is also introduced.

Intended Audience: This program is excellent both for the training of electricians as well as for the multi-craft training needs of process and manufacturing facilities.

Associated Course Lessons

Lesson Title: Lesson 1- Electrical Theory: Ohm's Law

Lesson Prerequisite: This lesson is designed so that no prior knowledge is required.

Lesson Description: This lesson is designed to help the student develop a fundamental understanding of electricity and how simple electrical circuits operate. The lesson describes how voltage, current and resistance behave in a series circuit, parallel circuit and a series-parallel circuit. How to use Ohm's Law to calculate voltage, current and resistance are also discussed.

Lesson Outcome: Upon successful completion of this lesson, the participant will be able to describe the atomic structure of matter, describe the characteristics of good conductors and insulators; define electricity and describe how a simple circuit operates; define voltage, current, and resistance; describe voltage and current relationships; state Ohm's Law; use Ohm's Law to calculate an unknown value; define power and how to use power values with Ohm' Law; define a series circuit; properly identify simple schematic symbols for a battery, switch, lamp, resistor, and conductor; describe how current and resistance behave in a series circuit; describe how voltage behaves in a series circuit; use Kirchhoff's Voltage Law to find total voltage in a series circuit; describe how voltage and current behave in a parallel circuit; describe how resistance behaves in a parallel circuit; identify the series portions of a series-parallel circuit; and simplify a series-parallel circuit to determine how voltage, current, and resistance behave.

Lesson Title: Lesson 2- Electrical Theory: AC Characteristics

Lesson Prerequisite: This lesson is designed for participants familiar with Ohm's Law.

Lesson Description: This comprehensive lesson presents the basic AC characteristics, the principles of electromagnetism, and how inductance and capacitance affect an AC circuit. The lesson also describes the function of transformers and capacitors in an AC circuit.

Lesson Outcome: Upon successful completion of this lesson, participants will be able to state the basic operating AC characteristics voltage with a focus on inductors and capacitors; explain how AC voltage changes over time; define sine wave and cycle; interpret the frequency of AC voltage using a sine wave, explain rms voltage vs. peak voltage; describe the principles of magnetism, describe flux density; describe how a magnetic field is generated by passing current through a conductor, explain self-induction and counter-EMF, describe how current is induced in a coil-type conductor; explain mutual induction; explain the principle of transformer function; explain the function of a tap in transformer construction, describe the effect of inductance in AC circuits; explain what is meant by being "in" and "out" of phase; define capacitance and identify its schematic symbol; explain how a capacitor becomes charged and discharged; and explain how capacitance affects AC circuits.

Lesson Title: Lesson 3- Electrical Theory: 3 Phase AC Circuits

Lesson Prerequisite: This is lesson requires a fundamental knowledge of electrical theory and terminology.

Lesson Description: This lesson is designed to familiarize participants with 3 phase alternating current and its applications. Generation, transmission and distribution of 3 phase AC as well as the different types of electrical connections found in 3 phase equipment will be covered. The lesson concludes with a discussion of transformers and their applications.

Lesson Outcome: Upon successful completion of this lesson, participants will be able to define 3 phase AC and state some applications; describe the components and operating principle of a 3 phase generator; use a sine wave to explain how 3 phase voltage changes over time; explain the relationship between frequency and rotor speed; describe how rotor speed and the number of poles relate to frequency; describe the relationship between phase and line voltages in a three-wire wye connection , four-wire wye connection and delta connection; calculate power in a 3 phase load; describe the relationship between phase and line currents in a three-wire wye connection, four-wire wye connection, and delta connection; identify and describe the functions of the basic transformer parts; explain the relationship between a transformer's turns ratio and its input and output voltages; given the secondary voltage and load, determine the primary current; given the ratio and voltage and current from either the primary or secondary, determine the power; given power and primary voltage, determine primary current; given primary voltage, determine secondary voltage in a 3-phase transformer; describe the configuration of a 3 phase transformer and state some applications and maintenance precautions; and explain the functions and uses of multitap and autotransformers.

Lesson Title: Lesson 4- Solid State Theory: Semiconductors and Diodes

Lesson Prerequisite: This lesson is designed for participants with fundamental knowledge of electrical theory and terminology.

Lesson Description: This lesson is designed to familiarize students with semiconductor material and one of the basic semiconductor devices, diodes. The lesson describes semiconductor electrical properties and doping, diode construction and several specific diode applications.

Lesson Outcome: Upon successful completion of this lesson, participants will be able to define "solid-state device"; describe the doping process and the properties of N- and P-type materials; explain current flow through N-type material and P-type material; describe the characteristics of the PN junction and the depletion region; describe current flow through forward- or reverse-biased PN material; explain the basic function of a diode, identify and label its schematic symbol and identify forward- and reverse-biased installation; given a variety of diode packages, identify the anodes and cathodes; describe the test equipment required to determine the anode and cathode of an unmarked diode; given an unmarked diode and the proper test equipment, identify the anode and cathode; given an operating characteristic graph, identify the four axes and the origin; define "forward current" and "forward voltage" and identify them on an operating characteristic curve; define "reverse-bias voltage" and identify it on an operating characteristic curve; define "peak inverse voltage" and identify it on an operating characteristic curve and explain its relationship to avalanche current; describe the effects of temperature on diodes; explain how a diode acts as a switch and how switching relates to the principle of rectification; explain the operation of a Zener diode and identify its schematic symbol; describe how a Zener diode functions as a voltage regulator; describe how a Zener diode is connected in a circuit; and explain the principle of operation of a light-emitting diode.

Lesson Title: Lesson 5- Solid-State Theory: Rectifiers and Filters

Lesson Prerequisite: This lesson is designed for participants with a knowledge of AC and DC theory, electrical safety, electrical connections, and semiconductors and diodes. The participants should also be able to read electrical diagrams and use test instruments.

Lesson Description: This lesson presents the basic operating theory of electronic power supplies, half-wave rectifiers, full-wave rectifiers, full-wave bridge rectifiers, capacitive input filters, and inductive input filters. This lesson also shows how to calculate the expected DC output voltage for a half-wave rectifier, full-wave rectifier, and full-wave bridge rectifier.

Lesson Outcome: Upon successful completion of this lesson, participants will be able to identify and describe the function of a transformer, rectifier, filter, voltage regulator, voltage divider, and switch-mode power supply; understand fundamental characteristics of power supply functionality; explain the operation of a half-wave rectifier; explain ripples and factors affecting output voltage calculation; explain RMS voltage vs. peak voltage; calculate half-wave rectifier output; explain the operation of a full-wave bridge rectifier; calculate the expected DC output voltage from a full-wave rectifier; explain full-wave bridge rectifier operation; calculate full-wave bridge rectifier output; explain the operation of a capacitive input filter; explain the operation of an inductive input filter; explain the significance of load size when calculating output from a filtered circuit; explain the operation of an inductive input filter; and understand how the use of a filter affects functionality of power supplies. Upon successful completion of this lesson, participants will be able to identify and describe the function of a transformer, rectifier, filter, voltage regulator, voltage divider, and switch-mode power supply; understand fundamental characteristics of power supply functionality; explain the operation of a half-wave rectifier; explain ripples and factors affecting output voltage calculation; explain RMS voltage vs. peak voltage; calculate half-wave rectifier output; explain the operation of a full-wave bridge rectifier; calculate the expected DC output voltage from a full-wave rectifier; explain full-wave bridge rectifier operation; calculate full-wave bridge rectifier output; explain the operation of a capacitive input filter; explain the operation of an inductive input filter; explain the significance of load size when calculating output from a filtered circuit; explain the operation of an inductive input filter; and understand how the use of a filter affects functionality of power supplies. Upon successful completion of this lesson, participants will be able to identify and describe the function of a transformer, rectifier, filter, voltage regulator, voltage divider, and switch-mode power supply; understand fundamental characteristics of power supply functionality; explain the operation of a half-wave rectifier; explain ripples and factors affecting output voltage calculation; explain RMS voltage vs. peak voltage; calculate half-wave rectifier output; explain the operation of a full-wave bridge rectifier; calculate the expected DC output voltage from a full-wave rectifier; explain full-wave bridge rectifier operation; calculate full-wave bridge rectifier output; explain the operation of a capacitive input filter; explain the operation of an inductive input filter; explain the significance of load size when calculating output from a filtered circuit; explain the operation of an inductive input filter; and understand how the use of a filter affects functionality of power supplies.

Lesson Title: Lesson 6- Solid State Theory: Power Devices

Lesson Prerequisite: This lesson is designed for participants with a knowledge of semiconductor material and PN junction theory.

Lesson Description: This lesson describes the operating principles and functions of various power devices, and how current flows through each device. This lesson also explains typical applications and the schematic symbol for each device. Testing of a transistor, an SCR, and a TRIAC is also shown. Lesson Outcome: Upon successful completion of this lesson, participants will be able to explain the internal construction of a bipolar transistor; describe current flow through an NPN transistor; differentiate between an PNP and an NPN transistor; draw the schematic symbols for PNP and NPN transistor; describe how transistors perform a switching function and an amplification function; given a circuit, calculate the power gain; correctly set up an analog multimeter to test a transistor; describe the function of an Insulated-Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT); describe the function of a Junction Field Effect Transistor (JFET); describe the function of a MOSFET; describe the operation of an SCR; use a characteristic curve to describe how an SCR operates; describe the application of an SCR; describe the operation of a Gate Turn-Off Thyristor (GTO), a TRAIC and a DIAC; use a multimeter to test a TRIAC or an SCR; and contrast the solid state power devices.

Lesson Title: Lesson 7- Introduction to Digital Devices

Lesson Prerequisite: This lesson is designed for participants with knowledge of basic electrical theory and the operating characteristics of transistors, resistors, and other basic circuit components. This lesson also requires an understanding of basic math concepts including exponents.

Lesson Description: This lesson explains how digital electronic components process and transmit information. This lesson leads the participant through the fundamentals of digital devices - from the binary, hexadecimal, and BCD number systems and truth tables to logic devices, symbols, and circuitry.

Lesson Outcome: Upon successful completion of this lesson, participants will be able to state the difference between analog and digital signals; state the benefits of analog and digital signals; convert numbers from the base ten number system to the binary number system; convert numbers from the binary number system to the base ten number system; define a byte, the most significant bit, and the least significant bit; convert numbers from the binary number system to the hexadecimal number system; state the relationship between conversion accuracy and number of bits; state two factors that affect the accuracy of converting signals; identify the symbol and truth table for the AND function; given a logic function, develop the corresponding truth table, identify the symbol and the truth table for the OR, NOT, NAND, NOR, XOR, and the XNOR functions; determine logic functions performed by a circuit; describe how a logic function can be used as a gate; identify the characteristics of TTL and CMOS; and contrast TTL and CMOS.

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