**Course Title**: Electrical Theory for Troubleshooters

**Delivery Medium**: Video Tapes

**Course Overview**: This comprehensive training program consists of seven
lessons that train participants in the principles of AC/DC and solid-state theories.
Digital electronic theory is also introduced.

**Intended Audience**: This program is excellent both for the training
of electricians as well as for the multi-craft training needs of process and
manufacturing facilities.

**Associated Course Lessons**

**Lesson Title: Lesson 1**- Electrical Theory: Ohm's Law

**Lesson Prerequisite**: This lesson is designed so that no prior knowledge
is required.

**Lesson Description**: This lesson is designed to help the student develop
a fundamental understanding of electricity and how simple electrical circuits
operate. The lesson describes how voltage, current and resistance behave in
a series circuit, parallel circuit and a series-parallel circuit. How to use
Ohm's Law to calculate voltage, current and resistance are also discussed.

** Lesson Outcome:** Upon successful completion of this lesson, the participant
will be able to describe the atomic structure of matter, describe the characteristics
of good conductors and insulators; define electricity and describe how a simple
circuit operates; define voltage, current, and resistance; describe voltage
and current relationships; state Ohm's Law; use Ohm's Law to calculate an unknown
value; define power and how to use power values with Ohm' Law; define a series
circuit; properly identify simple schematic symbols for a battery, switch, lamp,
resistor, and conductor; describe how current and resistance behave in a series
circuit; describe how voltage behaves in a series circuit; use Kirchhoff's Voltage
Law to find total voltage in a series circuit; describe how voltage and current
behave in a parallel circuit; describe how resistance behaves in a parallel
circuit; identify the series portions of a series-parallel circuit; and simplify
a series-parallel circuit to determine how voltage, current, and resistance
behave.

**Lesson Title: Lesson 2**- Electrical Theory: AC Characteristics

**Lesson Prerequisite**: This lesson is designed for participants familiar
with Ohm's Law.

**Lesson Description:** This comprehensive lesson presents the basic AC
characteristics, the principles of electromagnetism, and how inductance and
capacitance affect an AC circuit. The lesson also describes the function of
transformers and capacitors in an AC circuit.

**Lesson Outcome**: Upon successful completion of this lesson, participants
will be able to state the basic operating AC characteristics voltage with a
focus on inductors and capacitors; explain how AC voltage changes over time;
define sine wave and cycle; interpret the frequency of AC voltage using a sine
wave, explain rms voltage vs. peak voltage; describe the principles of magnetism,
describe flux density; describe how a magnetic field is generated by passing
current through a conductor, explain self-induction and counter-EMF, describe
how current is induced in a coil-type conductor; explain mutual induction; explain
the principle of transformer function; explain the function of a tap in transformer
construction, describe the effect of inductance in AC circuits; explain what
is meant by being "in" and "out" of phase; define capacitance and identify its
schematic symbol; explain how a capacitor becomes charged and discharged; and
explain how capacitance affects AC circuits.

**Lesson Title: Lesson 3**- Electrical Theory: 3 Phase AC Circuits

**Lesson Prerequisite**: This is lesson requires a fundamental knowledge
of electrical theory and terminology.

**Lesson Description**: This lesson is designed to familiarize participants
with 3 phase alternating current and its applications. Generation, transmission
and distribution of 3 phase AC as well as the different types of electrical
connections found in 3 phase equipment will be covered. The lesson concludes
with a discussion of transformers and their applications.

**Lesson Outcome**: Upon successful completion of this lesson, participants
will be able to define 3 phase AC and state some applications; describe the
components and operating principle of a 3 phase generator; use a sine wave to
explain how 3 phase voltage changes over time; explain the relationship between
frequency and rotor speed; describe how rotor speed and the number of poles
relate to frequency; describe the relationship between phase and line voltages
in a three-wire wye connection , four-wire wye connection and delta connection;
calculate power in a 3 phase load; describe the relationship between phase and
line currents in a three-wire wye connection, four-wire wye connection, and
delta connection; identify and describe the functions of the basic transformer
parts; explain the relationship between a transformer's turns ratio and its
input and output voltages; given the secondary voltage and load, determine the
primary current; given the ratio and voltage and current from either the primary
or secondary, determine the power; given power and primary voltage, determine
primary current; given primary voltage, determine secondary voltage in a 3-phase
transformer; describe the configuration of a 3 phase transformer and state some
applications and maintenance precautions; and explain the functions and uses
of multitap and autotransformers.

**Lesson Title: Lesson 4- Solid State Theory**: Semiconductors and Diodes

**Lesson Prerequisite: **This lesson is designed for participants with
fundamental knowledge of electrical theory and terminology.

**Lesson Description:** This lesson is designed to familiarize students
with semiconductor material and one of the basic semiconductor devices, diodes.
The lesson describes semiconductor electrical properties and doping, diode construction
and several specific diode applications.

**Lesson Outcome**: Upon successful completion of this lesson, participants
will be able to define "solid-state device"; describe the doping process and
the properties of N- and P-type materials; explain current flow through N-type
material and P-type material; describe the characteristics of the PN junction
and the depletion region; describe current flow through forward- or reverse-biased
PN material; explain the basic function of a diode, identify and label its schematic
symbol and identify forward- and reverse-biased installation; given a variety
of diode packages, identify the anodes and cathodes; describe the test equipment
required to determine the anode and cathode of an unmarked diode; given an unmarked
diode and the proper test equipment, identify the anode and cathode; given an
operating characteristic graph, identify the four axes and the origin; define
"forward current" and "forward voltage" and identify them on an operating characteristic
curve; define "reverse-bias voltage" and identify it on an operating characteristic
curve; define "peak inverse voltage" and identify it on an operating characteristic
curve and explain its relationship to avalanche current; describe the effects
of temperature on diodes; explain how a diode acts as a switch and how switching
relates to the principle of rectification; explain the operation of a Zener
diode and identify its schematic symbol; describe how a Zener diode functions
as a voltage regulator; describe how a Zener diode is connected in a circuit;
and explain the principle of operation of a light-emitting diode.

**Lesson Title: Lesson 5- **Solid-State Theory: Rectifiers and Filters

**Lesson Prerequisite**: This lesson is designed for participants with a
knowledge of AC and DC theory, electrical safety, electrical connections, and
semiconductors and diodes. The participants should also be able to read electrical
diagrams and use test instruments.

**Lesson Description: **This lesson presents the basic operating theory
of electronic power supplies, half-wave rectifiers, full-wave rectifiers, full-wave
bridge rectifiers, capacitive input filters, and inductive input filters. This
lesson also shows how to calculate the expected DC output voltage for a half-wave
rectifier, full-wave rectifier, and full-wave bridge rectifier.

**Lesson Outcome**: Upon successful completion of this lesson, participants
will be able to identify and describe the function of a transformer, rectifier,
filter, voltage regulator, voltage divider, and switch-mode power supply; understand
fundamental characteristics of power supply functionality; explain the operation
of a half-wave rectifier; explain ripples and factors affecting output voltage
calculation; explain RMS voltage vs. peak voltage; calculate half-wave rectifier
output; explain the operation of a full-wave bridge rectifier; calculate the
expected DC output voltage from a full-wave rectifier; explain full-wave bridge
rectifier operation; calculate full-wave bridge rectifier output; explain the
operation of a capacitive input filter; explain the operation of an inductive
input filter; explain the significance of load size when calculating output
from a filtered circuit; explain the operation of an inductive input filter;
and understand how the use of a filter affects functionality of power supplies.
Upon successful completion of this lesson, participants will be able to identify
and describe the function of a transformer, rectifier, filter, voltage regulator,
voltage divider, and switch-mode power supply; understand fundamental characteristics
of power supply functionality; explain the operation of a half-wave rectifier;
explain ripples and factors affecting output voltage calculation; explain RMS
voltage vs. peak voltage; calculate half-wave rectifier output; explain the
operation of a full-wave bridge rectifier; calculate the expected DC output
voltage from a full-wave rectifier; explain full-wave bridge rectifier operation;
calculate full-wave bridge rectifier output; explain the operation of a capacitive
input filter; explain the operation of an inductive input filter; explain the
significance of load size when calculating output from a filtered circuit; explain
the operation of an inductive input filter; and understand how the use of a
filter affects functionality of power supplies. Upon successful completion of
this lesson, participants will be able to identify and describe the function
of a transformer, rectifier, filter, voltage regulator, voltage divider, and
switch-mode power supply; understand fundamental characteristics of power supply
functionality; explain the operation of a half-wave rectifier; explain ripples
and factors affecting output voltage calculation; explain RMS voltage vs. peak
voltage; calculate half-wave rectifier output; explain the operation of a full-wave
bridge rectifier; calculate the expected DC output voltage from a full-wave
rectifier; explain full-wave bridge rectifier operation; calculate full-wave
bridge rectifier output; explain the operation of a capacitive input filter;
explain the operation of an inductive input filter; explain the significance
of load size when calculating output from a filtered circuit; explain the operation
of an inductive input filter; and understand how the use of a filter affects
functionality of power supplies.

**Lesson Title: Lesson 6-** Solid State Theory: Power Devices

**Lesson Prerequisite**: This lesson is designed for participants with a
knowledge of semiconductor material and PN junction theory.

**Lesson Description:** This lesson describes the operating principles and
functions of various power devices, and how current flows through each device.
This lesson also explains typical applications and the schematic symbol for
each device. Testing of a transistor, an SCR, and a TRIAC is also shown. Lesson
Outcome: Upon successful completion of this lesson, participants will be able
to explain the internal construction of a bipolar transistor; describe current
flow through an NPN transistor; differentiate between an PNP and an NPN transistor;
draw the schematic symbols for PNP and NPN transistor; describe how transistors
perform a switching function and an amplification function; given a circuit,
calculate the power gain; correctly set up an analog multimeter to test a transistor;
describe the function of an Insulated-Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT); describe
the function of a Junction Field Effect Transistor (JFET); describe the function
of a MOSFET; describe the operation of an SCR; use a characteristic curve to
describe how an SCR operates; describe the application of an SCR; describe the
operation of a Gate Turn-Off Thyristor (GTO), a TRAIC and a DIAC; use a multimeter
to test a TRIAC or an SCR; and contrast the solid state power devices.

**Lesson Title:** Lesson 7- Introduction to Digital Devices

**Lesson Prerequisite:** This lesson is designed for participants with
knowledge of basic electrical theory and the operating characteristics of transistors,
resistors, and other basic circuit components. This lesson also requires an
understanding of basic math concepts including exponents.

**Lesson Description**: This lesson explains how digital electronic components
process and transmit information. This lesson leads the participant through
the fundamentals of digital devices - from the binary, hexadecimal, and BCD
number systems and truth tables to logic devices, symbols, and circuitry.

**Lesson Outcome**: Upon successful completion of this lesson, participants
will be able to state the difference between analog and digital signals; state
the benefits of analog and digital signals; convert numbers from the base ten
number system to the binary number system; convert numbers from the binary number
system to the base ten number system; define a byte, the most significant bit,
and the least significant bit; convert numbers from the binary number system
to the hexadecimal number system; state the relationship between conversion
accuracy and number of bits; state two factors that affect the accuracy of converting
signals; identify the symbol and truth table for the AND function; given a logic
function, develop the corresponding truth table, identify the symbol and the
truth table for the OR, NOT, NAND, NOR, XOR, and the XNOR functions; determine
logic functions performed by a circuit; describe how a logic function can be
used as a gate; identify the characteristics of TTL and CMOS; and contrast TTL
and CMOS.

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